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Copper alloy application industry

2021-05-27 10:49:53
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Brass an alloy of copper with zinc as the primary additive element, having a beautiful yellow color, called brass. Copper zinc binary alloy is called general brass or simple brass. The brass above three yuan is called special brass or messy brass. Brass alloys with zinc content less than 36% are composed of solid solutions and have excellent cold working functions. For example, brass with zinc content of 30% is commonly used to make shell casings, commonly known as shell brass or seventy-three brass. Brass alloys with zinc content between 36 and 42% are composed of and solid solutions, among which the most commonly used is hexagonal brass with zinc content of 40%. In order to improve the function of general brass, other elements are often added, such as aluminum, nickel, manganese, tin, silicon, lead, etc. Aluminum can advance the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of brass, but reduce the plasticity, suitable for Marine condensation pipe and other corrosion resistance parts. Tin can advance the strength of brass and corrosion resistance to sea water, so it is called Marine brass, used for ship thermal equipment and propeller. Lead can improve the cutting function of brass. This free cutting brass is often used as a wall clock part. Brass castings are often used to make valves and plumbing fittings. The fire hydrant explosion - proof crescent spanner commonly used in ships is cast from brass and aluminum.

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Electrical industry


Power delivery


The demand for a lot of high conductivity consumption of copper in force transport, mainly used for power wire and cable, busbar, transformer, switch, plug elements and connectors.


In the transmission of wires and cables, electrical energy is wasted because resistors heat up. From the point of view of energy saving and economy, the "best cable section" specification is being popularized internationally. In the past, the prevailing norms simply set out from the point of view of reducing the investment of the first installation, in order to minimize the cable cross section, so as to avoid dangerous overheating at the rated current required by the design, to determine the lowest allowable scale of the cable. Cables laid according to this specification, although installation charges are lower; But in the long run, the resistance consumes a lot of energy." The specification of "optimal cable section" takes into account both the cost of primary installation and the consumption of electric energy, and appropriately enlarges the cable scale so as to achieve the purpose of energy saving and optimal economic benefits. According to the new specification, the cable section is often doubled than the old specification, which can achieve about 50% energy saving effect.


In the past period of time, China has used aluminum instead of copper in the overhead high-voltage transmission lines to reduce the weight, considering that the proportion of aluminum is only 30% of copper, because the supply of steel is in short supply. Underground cable. In this case, aluminum pales in comparison with copper, which has the disadvantages of poor conductivity and larger cable scale.


For the same reason, it is also the right choice to replace the old aluminium winding transformer with energy-saving and efficient copper winding transformer.


Motor manufacturing


Copper alloys with high conductivity and high strength are widely used in motor manufacturing. The primary copper parts are stator, rotor and shaft head. In large motors, the windings are cooled by water or hydrogen, called dual water internal cooling or hydrogen cooling motors, which require large length hollow conductors.


Motors are the largest users of electric energy, accounting for about 60% of the total power supply. A motor operation accumulated electricity is very high, generally in the initial operation of 500 hours to reach the cost of the motor easy, within a year is equivalent to 4 ~ 16 times the cost, in the whole operation life can reach 200 times the cost. The few advances in motor power are not just saving energy; And can obtain remarkable economic benefits. The development and application of high efficiency motor was a hot topic in the world at that time. Because the motor internal energy consumption, mainly from the winding resistance loss; Therefore, increasing copper wire section is a key method to develop high efficiency motor. Compared with some high efficiency motors and traditional motors, the use of copper windings increases by 25 ~ 100%. America's Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to use copper-cast technology to produce motor rotors.


Communication cable


Since the 1980s, because of the advantages of fiber optic cable such as large current-carrying capacity, it has been continuously replacing copper cable in the communication trunk line, and it has been rapidly promoted and applied. Still, it takes a lot of copper to convert electricity into light and feed it into the wiring of the consumer. With the development of communication, people rely more and more on communication, the demand for optical fiber cable and copper wire will continue to increase.


Dwelling electrical circuit


With the progress of people's living standards in Our country, household appliances are agile throughout the residence electricity load increases very quickly. As shown in Figure 6.6, residential electricity consumption in 1987 was 26.96 billion KWH (L KWH =1 kW? In 1996, 10 years later, it soared to 1113.1 billion degrees Celsius, an increase of 3.2 times. However, there is still a long way to go compared with developed countries. For example, in 1995, the per capita electricity consumption of the United States was 14.6 times that of China, while that of Japan was 8.6 times. China's residential electricity consumption is still developing in the future. From 1996 to 2005, it is expected to increase by a factor of 1.4.




The electronics industry


Electronic industry is a new industry, in its thriving development process, constantly announced new steel products and new application fields. Its application has been expanded from electrical vacuum equipment and printed circuit to microelectronics and semiconductor integrated circuit.


Electric vacuum apparatus


Electrical vacuum equipment is mainly high frequency and ultra high frequency transmitting tube, waveguide, magnetron, etc., they need high purity anaerobic copper and diffusion strengthened anaerobic copper.


Printed circuit


Copper printed circuit, is the copper foil as the appearance, pasted on the plastic plate as a support; Printing circuit wiring diagrams on copper plates by photographic method; An interconnecting circuit is left to be removed by etching. Then, in the PRINTED circuit board and the external connection of the hole, the joint of the discrete components or other parts of the terminal inserted, welded in the mouth, such a sound line assembly is completed. If the dip plating method is selected, the welding of all joints can be completed at one time. Thus, for those occasions requiring precise layout of circuit, such as radio, television, computer, etc., the use of printed circuit can save a lot of wiring and fixed loop labor; Therefore, it is widely used and requires a lot of copper foil. In addition, in the connection of the circuit also need to use a variety of low-cost, low melting point, good liquidity of copper based brazing data.


The integrated circuit


At the heart of microelectronics skills is the integrated circuit. Integrated circuit refers to the semiconductor crystal data as the substrate (chip), select special technology skills to make the circuit components and interconnect integrated in the substrate inside, outside or on the substrate of the miniaturized circuit. Such microcircuits are thousands of times smaller in size and weight in structure than the most compact discrete component circuits. Its appearance led to a huge revolution in computing and became the foundation of modern information skills. The announced large planning integrated circuit, in a single chip area smaller than the thumbnail, can make the number of transistors, has reached 100,000 or even more than a million. The world-renowned computer company IBM (international Business Machines Company) has made a breakthrough by choosing copper instead of aluminum in silicon chips as interconnects. The new copper microchip achieves a 30 percent efficiency gain, and the line size of the circuit can be reduced to 0.12 micron, enabling the number of transistors integrated on a single chip to reach 2 million. This creates a new situation for the application of the old metal copper in the most new skill field of semiconductor integrated circuits [1].


Lead structure


In order to maintain the normal operation of integrated circuit or hybrid circuit, it needs to be packaged; And during packaging, many of the joints in the circuit are extracted from the sealing body. These leads are required to have a certain strength and constitute the supporting skeleton of the integrated package circuit, which is called the lead structure. In actual production, in order to high-speed mass production, the lead structure is usually pressed on a metal belt in a specific arrangement. The structure data account for 1/3 ~ 1/4 of the total cost of IC, and the amount is very large. Therefore, it is necessary to have a low cost.


Copper alloy has low price, high strength, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, excellent processing function, needle welding and corrosion resistance, after alloying can control its function in a large range, can better meet the functional requirements of the lead structure, has become an important information of the lead structure. It is now the largest amount of copper in the top of micro-electronic equipment.


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Transportation industry


The ship


Many copper alloys, such as aluminum bronze, manganese bronze, aluminum brass, guncopper (tin zinc bronze), white steel and nickel copper (Monel), have become standard materials for shipbuilding because of their excellent corrosion resistance to sea water. Copper and copper alloys generally account for 2 ~ 3% of the dead weight of warships and merchant ships.


The propellers of warships and most large merchant ships are made of aluminum bronze or brass. The propellers of large ships weigh 20 ~ 25 tons each. The propellers on the Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary weigh 35 tons each. The same information is used for admiral brass, rudder and screw taper bolts for the heavy stern shafts of large ships. Steel and copper alloys may be used in the engine and boiler room. The first nuclear powered merchant ship in the world, using 30 tons of white copper condensate pipe. Large heating coils for tanks made of aluminum-brass tubes. There are 12 of these tanks on a 100,000-ton ship and the corresponding heating system is planned to be quite large. The ship's electrical equipment was a mess, too. Engines, motors, communications systems, etc., depended entirely on copper and copper alloys. Steel and copper alloys are often used to decorate the interior of large boats. Even wooden canoes are best fixed with screws and nails of steel alloy (usually silicon bronze), which can be produced by rolling in large numbers.


In order to prevent the hull from being polluted by Marine organisms and affecting navigation, copper cladding is often used for maintenance. Or brush the method that contains copper paint to handle.


In the second World War, in order to guard against the German magnetic mine attack on ships, diamagnetic mine equipment was developed. A copper belt was attached around the steel hull, and an electric current was applied to neutralize the ship's magnetic field, so that the mine could not be detonated. Since 1944, all Allied ships, some 18,000 in all, have been serviced with demagnetization equipment. Some of the larger capital ships needed a lot of copper for this purpose, such as one that was 28 miles long and weighed about 30 tons.


The car


Car copper each 10 ~ 2I kg, with the car type and size varies, about the car accounted for about 6 ~ 9% of the weight. Copper and copper alloys are mainly used in radiators, brake system pipelines, hydraulic equipment, gears, bearings, brake friction plates, power distribution and power systems, gaskets and all kinds of joints, accessories and accessories. Its top steel is relatively large radiator. Modern tubular belt radiators are welded with brass bands to form radiator tubes and bent with thin copper bands to form fins.


In order to further improve the function of copper radiator and enhance its competitiveness to aluminum radiator, many improvements have been made. In terms of raw materials, add trace elements to copper to improve its strength and softening point without loss of thermal conductivity, and then reduce the thickness of the strip to save the amount of steel; In terms of manufacturing technology, high frequency or laser welding of copper tube is selected, and soft welding of radiator core is replaced by steel brazing. The results of these efforts are shown in Table 6.2. Compared with the brazed aluminum radiator, the new copper radiator is lighter and significantly smaller under the same heat dissipation conditions, i.e., under the same air and coolant pressure drop. In addition to the corrosion resistance of steel, long service life, the advantage of copper radiator is more obvious. In addition, in order to protect the environment, vigorously promote and develop electric cars, the amount of steel used in each car will increase exponentially.


The railway


The electrification of railways has a great demand for copper and copper alloys. More than 2 tons of special-shaped copper wire are needed for each kilometer of overhead conductor. To improve its strength, it is often joined by a small amount of copper (about 1%) or silver (about %). In addition, copper and copper alloys are used to operate motors, rectifiers, control, braking, electrical and signal systems on trains.

The plane


Planes can't fly without copper. For example, copper is used for wiring, hydraulic, cooling and pneumatic systems in aircraft, aluminum bronze pipes are used for bearing holders and landing gear bearings, magnetic-resistant steel alloys are used for navigation instruments, and copper-broken elastic elements are used in many instruments.

Light industry


Light industrial products are closely related to people's life and are of various and multifarious varieties. Because copper has outstanding inductive function, it can be seen everywhere the traces of magic. Here are just a few examples:


Air conditioners and freezers


The temperature control effect of air conditioners and freezers is mainly realized by transpiration and condensation of copper tubes of heat exchangers. The scale and heat transfer function of heat exchange tubes determine the efficiency and miniaturization of the whole air conditioner and refrigeration equipment to a great extent. In these machines are selected are high thermal conductivity function of the special-shaped copper pipe. Using steel outstanding processing functions, development, and the output with internal groove and high fin radiator pipe, used in the manufacture of air conditioner, refrigerator, heat exchanger in chemical and waste heat mouth closed equipment, makes the new progress of the total heat transfer coefficient of heat exchanger to use commonly 2 ~ 3 times, and in general 1.2 ~ 1.3 times of low finned tube in the domestic use, It can save 40% copper and reduce the volume of heat exchanger by more than 1/3.


Wall clock


Manufactured wall clocks, timers and equipment with wall clock organization, most of the working parts of which are made of "wall brass". The alloy contains 1.5-2% lead. It has excellent processing function and is suitable for large-scale production. For example, gears are cut out of long extruded brass rods, flat wheels are cut out of strip of corresponding thickness, bell surfaces are made of brass or other copper alloys, and screws and joints are made, etc. Many cheap watches are made of copper (tin, zinc and bronze) or nickel silver (white copper) plated. Some famous clocks are made of steel and copper alloys. The British "Big Ben" clock has an hour hand with a solid gun brass rod and a minute hand with a 14-foot brass tube.


A modern wall clock factory, with copper alloy as the primary material, with press and accurate mold processing, can produce ten thousand to thirty thousand wall clocks a day, the cost is very low.


The paper


At that time, paper consumption was high in an information - rich society. Paper looks simple on the outside, but the papermaking process is messy, requiring many steps and using many machines, including coolers, diggers, beaters, paper machines and so on. Many parts, such as various heat exchange tubes, roller wheels, impact bars, semi-liquid pumps and wire mesh, are mostly made of steel alloy.


For example, the selection of long net paper machine, it will be made of good pulp to the fast movement of a fine mesh (40 ~ 60 mesh) on the cloth. Woven of brass and phosphor bronze wire, the mesh is wide, typically 20 feet (6 meters) or more, and must be completely straight. The mesh moves on a series of small brass or copper rollers, and moisture is sucked out from underneath as it passes with the pulp sprayed onto it. The nets vibrate together to bind the small fibers in the pulp. Large paper machines have large mesh sizes, up to 26 feet 8 inches (8. L m) wide and 100 feet (30. 5 m) long. Wet pulp not only contains water, but also contains chemicals used in the papermaking process, which is highly corrosive. In order to ensure the quality of the paper, the network material requirements are very strict, not only to have high strength and flexibility; And to resist pulp corrosion, copper alloy can do the job.


printing


To make photographic plates with a copper plate. A polished copper plate is sensitized with a sensitive latex and photographed on it. Photosensitive copper plates need to be heated to harden the glue. To prevent thermal softening, copper often contains a small amount of silver or arsenic to improve the softening temperature. The plate is then etched to form a printed surface scattered with concave and convex points.


On automatic typesetters, brass type blocks are arranged to make plates, which is another important use of copper in printing. Type blocks are usually made of leaded brass, but sometimes copper or bronze.


medicine


In pharmaceutical industry, all kinds of steaming, cooking, vacuum equipment are made of pure copper. Zinc white copper is widely used in medical instruments. Copper alloy is still commonly used information such as spectacle frame

The construction industry


Because r cupreous conduit has beautiful and durable, device convenient, safe fire prevention, health care and so on a lot of advantages, make it and galvanized steel pipe and plastic pipe compare existence obviously superior price function than. In residential and shared buildings, used for water supply, heating, gas supply and fire sprinkler system, increasingly popular, became the first choice of information. In developed countries, copper water supply system has taken a large proportion. The Manhattan Tower in New York, the sixth largest building in the world, uses 60,000 feet of copper pipes for its water supply system alone. In Europe, consumption of steel pipes for drinking water is high. The consumption of copper pipes for drinking water in Britain is about the same


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